Collection of ZhangLei (Chinese classical literature series) (中国古典文学基本丛书:张耒集)

By 张耒

张耒是北宋晚期的一位重要诗人,张耒青年时代游学陈州,以文章受知于学官苏辙,因而得从苏轼门下,苏轼称其文“汪洋淡泊,有一唱三叹之声”,在苏轼的挹提携下,张耒与黄庭坚、晁補之,泰颧一时并有文名,世称“苏门四学士”,本书是所传张耒各种本子的合集,极具研究收藏价值。

张耒(1054-1114),北宋诗人。字文潜,号柯山。祖籍亳州谯县(今安徽省亳县)人,生长于楚州淮阴(今属江苏省清江)。为“苏门四学士”之一。张耒自幼聪慧,13岁即能文,从学于苏轼,颇受苏轼的爱重。神宗·熙宁六年(1073年)中进士,历任临淮主簿、寿安尉、咸平县丞,著作郎、史馆检诗等职。哲宗·结圣初,以直龙阁知润州。徽宗·元祐初占试馆阁,授秘书省正字,官至起居舍人。绍圣中被指为元祐党人,谪监黄州酒税,徙复州,数遭贬谪。徽宗继位,始立黄州通判,知兖州,召为太常少卿,不久出知颍、汝二州。在颍州得到苏轼死讯,举哀行服。自苏轼、苏辙、黄庭坚、晁补之相继去世,张耒独存,士人均向他问学。张耒文风,源于三苏,主张文理并重,平易舒坦。对南宋诗人学习唐调,开了风气。风格与柳永、秦观相近,代表作有《少年游》、《风流子》等。《少年游》写闺情离思,那娇羞少女的情态跃然纸上,让人羡煞爱煞,那份温情美妙真是有点“浓得化不开”之酣意。其佳句“漱井消午醉,扫花坐晚凉”,“川坞半夜雨,卧冷五更秋”,“翠浪有声黄帽动,春风无力彩旗垂”等,很受人们称赏。创作以诗歌成就最高,集中有乐府诗、古律诗30余卷,近1700首,除个人抒情遣怀之作外,多以田野风光、稼穑艰难和民生疾苦居多,颇有白居易、张籍、王建之风,不尚雕琢。如《田家》、《海州道中》等。他的写景抒怀诗,真醇自然,清新圆润,而人寻味。如咏乡土风物和农夫忧乐,反映出卖苦力者艰辛的《劳歌》,描绘农人劳动“半归仓廪半输王”痛苦的《输麦行》,写迫于饥寒农民操戈为盗的《和晁应之悯农》等,在题材和思想的开拓上颇具新意。张耒诗风以平易、流丽、晓畅见长,很少硬语僻典,晁补之曾在《题文潜诗册后》赞称说:“君诗容易不著意,忽似春风开百花。”。苏轼则在《答张文潜书》中称其文甚似苏辙:“汪洋淡泊,有一唱三叹之声。”不过,张耒写诗,长于锻造佳句,短于谋篇布局,有时琢炼不够,部分作品不免流于草率粗疏。张耒写词甚少,《能改斋漫录》卷十七录其《少年游》、《秋蕊香》词,谓:“元祐诸公皆有乐府,唯张仅见此二词。”可知其词当时却不多见。今人辑得《柯山词》仅6首,其中《秋蕊香》、《风流子》写得深婉多情,风调略与秦观祠相近。张耒有《柯山集》50卷,《拾遗》12卷,《续拾遗》1卷,存武英殿聚珍藏版福建本、广雅书局本。《张右史文集》60卷,有《四部丛刊》影印旧钞本,《宛丘集》76卷,有《四库全书》本。见于《宛丘集》而不见于《柯山集》的诗文,已辑入《拾遗》中。
  这次整理的《张耒集》,是所传张耒各种本子的合集。此外,我们又从《竹坡诗话》、《诗林广记》、《全芳憊祖》等书中辑出诗十六首(句)、赞文一首,编为《佚文辑存》附后。有关张耒的传记资料及版本序跋等,亦一并附后憊考。底本原有的序跋、年谱等,也并入书末附录中。张耒另有《张太史明道杂志》一卷,属笔记体专著,这次整理未予收入。为了查检方便,书后附有篇目索引。

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